Updated: May 16
Hydrogen:- By far the most commonest element in the Universe, hydrogen comprises some 930,000 out of every million atoms.
Helium:- Light, colorless and odorless, helium also has the lowest melting point of any element in the periodic table.
Neon:- Neon is used for signs because it glows red when an electrical discharge is passed through it
The Mohs Scale, named after German mineralogist Friedrich Mohs 17731839 is used for comparing the relative hardness of minerals. Each mineral on the scale is softer and hence capable of being scratched by all those below it.
Marie Curie:- With her husband, Marie Curie discovered the elements curium, radium, and polonium.
Oceans and Seas
Persian Gulf:- Encompassing the world's largest offshore oilfield, the Persian Gulf adjoins eight countries
Canadian coast:- More than 50,000 offshore islands lie along Canada's extensive coastline.
Each of the eight deepest ocean trenches would be deep enough to submerge Mount Everest which is 8, 850 m 29.035 - above sea level
Creature of the deep:- Fangtooth fish live at depths of up to 5 km (3 miles), where no light penetrates
Water on the Move
Amazing Amazon:- Despite having a drainage area twice the size of India the Amazon is not crossed by any bridges
Angel Falls:- The Falls are named after American pilot James Angel, who crash-landed his plane there in 1933 and trekked for 11 days back to civilization
Bobby Leach, a Cornish circus stuntman became the first man and second person - ever to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel on 25 July 1911. He broke both knee caps and fractured his jaw.
Island & Lakes
High island:- Lying between the Himalayas and the Andes, Puncak Jaya embodies one of the very few ice-covered areas on the Equator.
Island influx:- A commuter influx swells Manhattan population to nearly three million during business hours.
Exploring Lake Baikal:- Scientists use the same submarines that once explored the Titanic
On-Location:- Containing roughly one-fifth of the world's surface freshwater, Lake Baikal is also the planet's oldest lake formed more than 25 million years ago.
On the top of the world
In 1852, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India revealed that Everest was the world's tallest peak at 8,840 m (29,002 ft). Errors in measurement were corrected in 1955 to 8,848 m (29,029 ft) and in 1993 to 8,847.7 m (29,028 ft). In 1999, data beamed from sensors on Everest's summit to GPS satellites established a new height of 8,850 m (29,035 ft), which geographers accept as the current 'official' figure.
The Aleutian Range extends for 2,655 km (1,650 miles) but is fragmented across numerous islands of the northwest Pacific
Machu Picchu:- The Andes were originally inhabited by the Incas, and span seven countries and three capitals.
Sicily's 3,350-m (10.99-ft) Mount Etna may have been erupting for more than half a million years, with occasional dormant periods. Continuous activity has been recorded for the past 3,500 years, the eruption of 1843 killing 56, with a further nine in 1979 and two in 1987.
Ojos del Salado:- The second highest peak in the Andes and in the Southern Hemisphere also contains the world's most elevated lake
Piton de la Fournaise:- Meaning 'Peak of the Furnace', this volcano has erupted 19 times in the last decade.
Saharan sands cover an area nearly the size of the USA, half of the Sahara receives less than 2 cm (0.8 in) of rain per year.
Coral collection - With 1,190 coral islands, the Maldive's average height above sea level is only 1.5 m (4.9 ft).
Great depths:- The depth of the Krubera cave is equivalent to seven times the height of the Eiffel Tower
In January 2001, a team of Ukrainian cave explorers in the Arabikskaja system in the western Caucasus mountains of the Georgian Republic found a branch of the Voronja, or 'Crow's Cave', and established that its depth of 1,710 m (5,610 ft) far exceeded anything previously known.
The Largest Meteorites Ever Found:- Meteorites have been known since early times fragments of meteorites have been found mounted in a necklace in an Egyptian pyramid and in ancient Native American burial sites. On 16 November 1492, there was the tail of a 118-kg (260-Ib) meteorite, which was later preserved in the museum at Ensisheim in Switzerland. There have been nearly 40,000 documented meteorite finds, with the largest eight weighing over 20 tonnes. Estimates of the size of meteorites creating the largest craters dwarf those that have actually been discovered. The meteorite producing Vredefort in South Africa is believed to have been between 5-10 km (3-6 miles) wide, weighing trillions of tonnes.
Space debris:- Discovered by chance while a farmer was plowing, Hoba meteorite weighs more than six elephants.
Iquique:- A commune in northern Chile, Iquique includes a popular port city and the Atacama Desert.
The Republic of Djibouti:- One of Africa's least populated countries, Djibouti's landscape is mostly semi-desert.
Vostok, a Russian research station, recorded the lowest temperature on Earth on 21 July 1983, and, though unofficial, an even colder one of -91°C (-132°F) in 1997. The station is situated at an altitude of 3,420 m (11,220 ft) and is susceptible to high speed katabatic (downhill) winds that can reach up to 322 km/h (200 mph)
Oymyakon Known as the coldest populated place on Earth, Oymyakon has an average winter temperature of -45°C (-49°F).
Haiti earthquake:- The magnitude 7.0 earthquake caused US$11 billion of damage and left 1.5 million homeless.
Indonesian eruption:- Around 50 million cubic meters of volcanic material was released by the 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi.
Precise figures for deaths during the disruptions of epidemics are inevitably unreliable, but the Black Death, or bubonic plague, probably transmitted by fleas from infected rats, swept across Asia and Europe in the 14th century, destroying entire populations including more than half the inhabitants of London, some 25 million in Europe and 50 million in Asia.
Floodwaters in China:- China has suffered over 200 incidents of flooding in the last 100 years the worst affecting a quarter of a billion people.