A brief look out the space we know today

Updated: Mar 25

Image Credit: Unsplash
Image Credit: Unsplash

When we look on a cloudless night at sky we can see thousands of stars in the sky. From human perspective view that is known as space (The outer space is a zone that occurs about 100 kilometers (60 miles) above the planet Earth). The name space given by humans due to the massive empty areas in between the atmospheres of stars and planets, apart from the odd rocks, space is sprinkled only with dust and gas. We call space is a universe because exoplanets, Solar System, Stars, Planets, Earth, galaxies, Sun, dust, gas, rock and other things stays inside the universe. Space also known a 3D regions where atmosphere of Earth ends. We can maintain satellites in the low orbit at a particular time without falling into the atmosphere. It is belivd that this low orbit space is begin.

When we think about space, the first thing comes into our mind that

  • Space is weightlessness because everything floats due to no gravity

  • Space is nothingness because of the vast areas of space are completely empty

  • Space contains stars have burning ball of gas and planets, dust, rocks, comets and many more...

  • Astronauts go to the space travel and they who explore the space beyond our Earth

  • Rockets and Satellites deployed in space and these are man-made artificial machines. This things helps scientists to explore the space world

  • Space is too much silence, even a sound cannot pass because space is like a vacuum and there is no air in space to breathe

  • There is no scatter light in space

  • Space is big. No one knows how much it bigger or smaller.

  • We can see small portions of space through our telescopes from Earth and deployed telescopes in space.

  • Space is measured in light years. The formula of light is 3 X 10^8 to calculate the light year.

  • Space is too much dark and it feels scary.

  • The outer space is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays

The sound cannot carry in space because the molecules in space are not enough to transmit sound between them. In our empty space gas, dust and other matters are floating. The most import thing in the crowded area cannot host stars, planets and galaxies. The light travel in space expected around 9.3 Trillion kilometers in a light year.

The beginning of space is believed that happens through a big bang 13.7 billion years ago. Astronomers have no guarantee that how many universe exist. Some believing multiverse existing, some in single universe, some believe in infinity universe. Now a days astronomers believing in parallel universe, parallel timeline. These timeline same like our world may be existed in multiverse.

Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the universe but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space.

Space holds many secrets an it contains places where people at large are often stretched into spaghetti shapes or boiled or frozen solid. Astronauts wear protective clothing in space and it helps from these kind of ridiculous things. Humans designed the spacecraft to work in a zone with no atmosphere and there was no need for smooth edges or an aerodynamic shape.

Some space term is

  • interplanetary space (space between planets in our solar system)

  • interstellar space (space between stars in our galaxy)

  • intergalactic space (space between galaxies in the universe)

Space have no friction for allowing stars, planets and moons to move freely along their ideal orbits following the initial formation stage. The deep vacuum of intergalactic space is not devoid of matter because it contains a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter The low density of matter in space means that electromagnetic radiation can travel great distances without being scattered. The mean free path of a photon in intergalactic space is about 1023 km or 10 billion light years. In spite of this extinction, which is the absorption and scattering of photons by dust and gas is an important factor in galactic and intergalactic astronomy.

Stars, planets and moons retain their atmospheres by gravitational attraction. Atmospheres have no clearly delineated upper boundary. The density of atmospheric gas gradually decreases with distance from the object until it becomes indistinguishable from space. Magnetic fields have been detected in the space around every class of celestial object. Star formation in spiral galaxies can generate small scale dynamos creating turbulent magnetic field strengths of around 5–10 μG.

The Davis–Greenstein effect causes elongated dust grains to align themselves with a galaxy's magnetic field, resulting in weak optical polarization. This has been used to show ordered magnetic fields exist in several nearby galaxies. Magneto-hydrodynamic processes in active elliptical galaxies produce their characteristic jets and radio lobes. Non-thermal radio sources have been detected even among the most distant, high-z sources, indicating the presence of magnetic fields.

Galaxies contains billions of stars. Our galaxy, Milky Way is barred spiral galaxy. There are different types of galaxies in space in different shape and some of it astronomers able to find them very easily. These galaxies contains super massive black hole, planets, stars in different colours...etc. These black holes only visible through the radiation that each black hole emanates as well as through its gravitational interactions with other objects. If the black hole is particularly active with a lot of material falling into it, it produces immense amounts of radiation. This kind of a galactic object is called a quasar. Large groups of galaxies can form in clusters that are groups as large as hundreds or thousands of galaxies bound together gravitationally. Scientists consider these the largest structures in the universe.

Radiation in space

There are different kinds of radiation exist in our universe. Cosmic rays also fly through the neighborhood emanating from supernovas outside of the solar system. The universe is permeated with the cosmic microwave background, which can be understood as the leftovers of the immense explosion that formed our cosmos (usually called the Big Bang). The cosmic microwave background which is best seen in microwaves shows the earliest radiation that our instruments can detect.

All of the observable universe is filled with photons that were created during the Big Bang known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). There is quite likely a correspondingly large number of neutrinos called the cosmic neutrino background.

Stars like our sun can produce radiation. When stars become out of fuel, that star explodes as supernovae happens, after then radiations also come out from supernovae. They can range from red supergiants stars to cooling white dwarfs stars that are the leftovers of supernovas. These explosion can give neutron stars. When these neutron stars send out pulses of radiation are called pulsar stars.

Temperature: 2.7 kelvins (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F)

The baseline temperature of outer space is set by the background radiation from the Big Bang. The temperature of space is measured in kinetic activity of the gas. The radiation of space has a different temperature than the kinetic temperature of the gas, meaning that the gas and radiation are not in thermodynamic equilibrium. The gas temperatures in space can vary widely like, for example, the temperature in the Boomerang Nebula is 1 K while the solar corona reaches temperatures over 1.2–2.6 million K

Why is space so dark?

Space is black because there's nothing there to reflect light and if you look up Earth from space it looks like lit up because light from our Sun reflects off sea, land and the particles of our Earth atmosphere. The scatter light from the Sun in that Earth surface area blue gives way to black because oxygen molecules are not enough abundance to make the sky blue.

There are different kinds of mix of gases that helps to produces up our atmosphere and it doesn't simply finish suddenly because it fades step by step when we go above the Earth into space we can see that. Earth is cloaked in layer of gases, it is called atmosphere. You want to know that outside atmosphere is space and there is no air to breathe or to allow wings to fly. There is nobody can hear your scream also.

Different layers of gases in the Earth atmosphere

  • Troposphere - Between 6 to 20 km (3 ½ to 12 miles) above the ground and all the weather takes place here.

  • Stratosphere - This layer stays 50 km (31 miles) above the Earth and the Planes cruise in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere above the clouds.

  • Mesosphere - This layer stays 85 km (53 miles) above the ground and the air becomes thin. These thin air still thick enough to slow meteorites down and most of the experts agree that space begins at 100 km (63 miles) above the ground level from Earth. These line is known as Kármán line (100 km (63 miles) above the ground level from Earth)

  • Thermosphere - It reaches far to 700 kilometer (over four hundred miles) higher than Earth and the polar lights (aurora borealis in north and aurora in south) happen in thermosphere.

  • Exosphere - It is the outer layer of the atmosphere and extending 10,000 km (6,000 miles) higher than the bottom ground. The lighter gases drift into space on the far side from exosphere.

The Earth's atmospheric pressure drops to about 0.032 Pa at 100 kilometres (62 miles) of altitude compared to 100,000 Pa for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Above this altitude, isotropic gas pressure rapidly becomes insignificant when compared to radiation pressure from the Sun and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The thermosphere in this range has large gradients of pressure, temperature and composition, and varies greatly due to space weather.

Outside a protective atmosphere and magnetic field in Earth and there are few obstacles to the passage through space of energetic subatomic particles known as cosmic rays. These particles have energies ranging from about 106 eV up to an extreme 1020 eV of ultra high energy cosmic rays. The peak flux of cosmic rays occurs at energies of about 109 eV with approximately 87% protons, 12% helium nuclei and 1% heavier nuclei. In the high energy range, the flux of electrons is only about 1% of that of protons. Cosmic rays can damage electronic components and pose a health threat to space travelers.

According to astronauts Don Pettit, space has a burned/metallic odor that clings to their suits and equipment similar to the scent of an arc welding torch.

Do you know that where does our space begin?

Till now none of the humans cannot find where is our space begins. Some astronomers believed 13.7 billion years ago space begins from big bang and we can see that much of distant of space only.

There is no proper estimated boundary between Earth and atmosphere. When travel to space the density of atmosphere decreases.

  • Fédération Aéronautique Internationale :- Established the Kármán line at an altitude of 100 km (62 mi) as a working definition for the boundary between aeronautics and astronautics.

  • United States designates people who travel above an altitude of 50 mi (80 km) as astronauts.

  • NASA's Space Shuttle used 400,000 feet (122 km, 76 mi) as its re-entry altitude (termed the Entry Interface) which roughly marks the boundary where atmospheric drag becomes noticeable. Thus beginning the process of switching from steering with thrusters to maneuvering with aerodynamic control surfaces.

Other features of Space

The presence of dark matter and dark energy which are essentially forms of matter and energy that can only be detected through their effects on other objects. Expert believes that the universe is expanding and accelerating in that expansion and it can seen as one key piece of evidence for dark matter. 90% of the mass in most galaxies is in an unknown form called dark matter and it interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces. The majority of the mass energy in the observable universe is dark energy and it is a type of vacuum energy known as dark matter is poorly understood till now by expert.

Another is gravitational lensing that occurs when light bends around a star from a distant background object.

Black Holes

Another important thing in space is Black Hole. Nothing can escape from a black hole including light. There is no one have any idea whats happening inside the black hole and what will happen when a living being entered i black hole. There are thousands of researches are ongoing regarding the Black Hole and the results like unexpected mysteries. Albert Einstein first predicted the existence of black holes in 1916 with the help of gravitational waves.

Black Holes evolved from gravitational collapse of stars. Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) Scientific Collaboration has announced in 2017 that three black hole interactions and mergers detected through gravitational waves. These three events occurred in about two years indicating that when LIGO is implemented at full sensitivity.

Do you know?

  • Nebula could be a cloud of dust and gas in space.

  • If you'll drive a car straight up, it might take only about an hour to arrive in space.

  • You want to know that astronomers measure distance in space is called light year. Do yo know that one light year is the distance light travels in one year i.e. 10 million million kilometers (6 million million miles). Astronomers measure space distances in light years because the distances are so great that normal measurements have little meaning. You can say, a light year is the distance light travels in a year.

  • When we drive a automobile straight up above the sky and it take only an hour to reach in space.

  • International space law was established by the Outer Space Treaty and it entered into force on 10 October 1967. This treaty precludes any claims of national sovereignty and permits all states to freely explore outer space. The drafting of UN resolutions for the peaceful uses of outer space anti-satellite weapons have been tested in Earth orbit.

  • 2009:- Scientists reported detailed measurements with a Supra Thermal Ion Imager (an instrument that measures the direction and speed of ions) which allowed them to establish a boundary at 118 km (73.3 mi) above Earth. The boundary represents the midpoint of a gradual transition over tens of kilometers from the relatively gentle winds of the Earth's atmosphere to the more violent flows of charged particles in space, which can reach speeds well over 268 m/s (600 mph).

We will discuss other informations like planets, universe, solar system and many more things detailed in upcoming articles. This i a basic information only.

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