Windows 10 is the latest operating system released by Microsoft for personal computers. In fact, it was the system that gave the PC name to home computers. After 7 long years of use, we wanted to make this super article where we explain the most important keys of the desktop operating system par excellence. And it is not all, because we will make a selection of the most interesting tutorials that cover most of the problems, characteristics, and peculiarities of the window operating system so that nothing will escape you from now on. Let's start now because there is a lot of fabric to cut.
Windows: the PC's operating system
Windows is the name given by the Microsoft company, based in Redmond (USA), to its software package for personal computers, smartphones, and servers. We are indeed talking about a software package, although we normally call it an operating system, technically it is not.
Windows desktop systems are mounted on the kernel called Windows NT, it would be the same as the Unix / Linux kernel. On it, a large ecosystem of programs is executed providing all the functionalities to the user.
A brief review of the history
Microsoft's journey does not start directly from Windows, but this was the predecessor of the emblematic MS-DOS system launched for the first time in 1982 operating directly on a command console with the first Intel processors.
MS-DOS became Windows in 1985, thanks to the introduction of a window-based graphical user interface (GUI). This first graphical extension was called Windows 1.0 and the truth is that its functions were a mere graphical version of MS-DOS. In 1987 Windows 2.0 was released, and in version 2.03 the system allowed windows that overlapped one another. Imagine how basic everything was then, that Apple denounced Microsoft for plagiarizing this system of overlapping windows. The first stage ends with Windows 3.0 and its update to 3.1 in 1992, where it already became a multitasking system and was also distributed to the general public.
The new era of the general consumer system began in 1995 with the arrival of Windows 95. In it, not only the graphical interface was improved, but the current very modified kernel and operating system were implemented on Windows NT. This system became 32-bit with preemptive multitasking instead of the 16-bit and cooperative multitasking of MS-DOS. This system implemented a taskbar, start button and Plug and Play, something new for the time.
Windows 98 was released in 1998. It was a worse conceived system than 95, for which many users criticized it harshly. 2 years later Windows ME was released, the general consumer version of Windows 2000 oriented to servers, a system that improved in all aspects to 98.
And so we came to the era of Windows XP in 2001, a system built on top of Windows NT with two versions, Home and Professional, which was much more secure. The usability was similar to that of previous systems, although it was greatly improved in the multimedia section. Windows Vista was the 2007 successor, a very different system in appearance, and with versions in 32 and 64 bits, the new era said presently. It implemented many improvements in its usability, although it was also widely criticized for its number of errors, instability, and poor compatibility with XP programs. So many did not take the step towards it, staying with Windows XP in its 64-bit version.
To the rescue came Windows 7, a system that I liked much more. Again we had wide application compatibility, with many new functions such as multi-touch support or the new management of network user accounts with the HomeGroup that has been maintained until recently. It was much faster and less resource-consuming than Vista, being a worthy successor to Windows XP.
And what about Windows 8 and 8.1? It is still widely used, although many of us did not like that great orientation to tablets and touch devices. We lost that good classic start menu for one that took up the full screen, although with it the 64-bit architecture was practically predominant. In 8.1 the more purist users were again pleased by returning the home button.
So we come to Windows 10, released on July 29, 2015. The start menu is back, and a new update policy to become the most stable and secure system ever built by Microsoft (seriously). New multimedia applications and the Microsoft Edge browser were created. Along with them, the Cortana voice assistant, the one that we have never used in life, and the possibility for users to upgrade for free from Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 to Windows 10.
Windows 10 technical requirements
Like any other system or program, Windows has hardware requirements to be installed. In fact, this system is less demanding than the predecessor systems, due to its lower consumption of resources and being lighter. This is great for older and limited teams.
The minimum requirements are
Processor: 1 GHz frequency. SSE2, PAE, and NX support.
RAM memory: 1 GB for 32 Bit versions and 2 GB for 64 Bit versions.
Hard disk space: at least 16 GB for the 32 Bit version and 20 GB for the 64 Bit version.
Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 or higher support with WDDM 1.0 driver
Screen resolution : 800 x 600 pixels.
The recommended requirements are
Processor: Dual Core at 2 GHz, which supports SSE3 or higher.
RAM memory: 4 GB or higher for 32 Bit and 64 Bit versions.
Hard disk space: 50 GB or more, for installing applications and updates.
Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 10 or higher. For games, it is recommended to have a dedicated graphics card such as Nvidia GTX / RTX or AMD RX
Screen resolution : 1024 x 768 pixels.
Most important functions and analysis
This version has been Microsoft's final bet for its general consumer desktop system. A system that returned to the classic desktop of previous versions, although maintaining all the functionalities of the block system and a full menu version for the Tablet mode. The interface is much more minimalist and simple than previous systems, so the consumption of resources will be much lower.
The Activity Center of the system has been improved with successive updates, as well as the integration of Cortana, the voice assistant. Now they are much more complete and better-implemented elements, with a separate search function from the assistant. Similarly, applications such as the video player, calculator, Paint have undergone a profound renovation, including the Windows Edge browser, although Explorer remains the second option. Microsoft Store has remained almost unchanged, although increasingly complete. It has also made a full-fledged integration with Xbox Live, the ecosystem of its console that now we will also have in our Windows.
The system configuration also underwent changes, installing a new Smartphone-like application which includes most of the options of the mythical Control Panel, which of course is still available. Something positive is that the commands have remained unchanged in this version, adding the new Power Shell. It is a more advanced command-line version than CMD, with many more functions and similar to the Linux terminal.
With regard to security, we have a much more efficient and powerful Windows Defender that has been updated in a very correct way, and that today, there is no need to install independent antivirus. The system has also been adapted to the new biometric authentication systems with Windows Hello, with facial recognition or fingerprint sensor.
Regarding virtualization, we are also in luck, because the Hyper-V Hypervisor is not only present in Windows Servers, but also in Windows 10 Pro and Enterprise to be able to create and run virtual machines. In fact, the last update has included a Windows already virtualized on the main system, it is called SandBox and we can activate it in the Pro and Enterprise versions.
There is still much more to see, although we will develop it in the following sections.
Windows 10 editions that exist
In total, we have a whopping 12 editions of Windows 10 available to the user, all of them with independent licenses, although many with similar functionalities. They are as follows:
Windows 10 home: It is the basic version of Windows, with the most relevant functions for a normal user.
Windows 10 Pro: It is the basic version of Windows, with the most relevant functions for a normal user.
Windows 10 Pro for Workstation: In this version, more functionalities such as virtualization, Bitlocket, group policy management, or Remote Desktop are implemented. It is aimed at companies, programmers, and more advanced users.
Windows 10 Enterprise: It is a Pro version oriented for servers with the ReFS file system, and higher CPU and RAM capacity for huge workloads.
Windows 10 Mobile Enterprise: The Enterprise version is aimed at IT technology companies. It also has a ReFS file system and extra protection for applications and for connections with Direct Access, a VPN network access application.
Windows 10 Enterprise LTSC: Let's say it is a lighter version and optimized for business tablets and smartphones.
Windows Mobile: This version is the safest and most stable for companies, even loved by the gamer community. It is characterized by not offering feature updates, with many of them removed to optimize performance.
Windows 10S: It is an Enterprise version but vitaminized with extra protection and tools like AppLocker, DirectAccess, or Device Guard. Be careful not for students, but for educational platforms.
Windows 10 Team: A pro version of the previous one, with the Set up School PCs application to replicate the system via USB within educational environments.
Windows 1 Pro Education: It is a lightweight version of Windows for mobile devices. Continuum implements a touch version of Office, although the truth is that it has not been very successful.
Windows 10 IOT: It is considered the successor to Windows RT, so it only allows you to install applications from the Microsoft Store. This edition is not very palatable due to its limitation, although it was released with devices such as the Microsoft Surface Laptop. Let's say it's a kind of Chrome OS saving the distance.
Windows 10 N and KN version: Version oriented to business Surface Hubs used in meeting rooms for example. Deploy a whiteboard app and Skype for Business. It also belongs to the Enterprise branch.
Updates and versions policy
There are two upgrade methods for the system. The Preview Branch is for Windows Insider members, where new versions of Windows arrive in beta for subscribers to perform the first tests. Here we can choose the fast ring or the slow ring, to have this beta sooner or later. The second way is the normal or Current Branch for normal users using Windows Update or the Upgrade Tool application. This method has several types of updates:
Feature Updates: Appear semi-annually and is a package that profoundly modifies the operation of the system. They add or remove functions and review the security of the system.
Quality Updates: These are the normal updates and patches that are released at any time.
Driver and Product Updates: Store, Office, and device driver programs can also be updated by Windows Update.
After these 5 years of using Windows 10, the system has gone through different versions, not to be confused with editions. They correspond to all released feature updates. They are 1507, 1511, 1607, 1703, 1703, 1709, 1803, 1809 and 1903.
This is the basic thing you should know how to do
After the basic notions of the system, we are going to delve a little more into the essential aspects of the operating system, such as the management of its Installation, security, or user management.
Windows defender and security
One of the most important improvements that this version of Windows brought and that has been evolving is Windows Defender. It is the system's native software for viruses, spyware, and now ransomware and OneDrive cloud security detection.
Where to buy Windows 10
We have seen that Windows is available in a lot of distributions, although for most users it will be reduced to two: the Home and the Pro, the first cheaper and the second more expensive. As long as we are curious and want to get a little extra, we recommend the Pro version.
On the net, there are many places to buy cheap Windows 10 licenses. Keep in mind that an unlicensed Windows will only be limited in the customization of its visual theme. Absolutely everything else will be available.
We are going to install Windows 10
We do not need a computer scientist to be able to install Windows 10 on our PC, since the system gives us all the necessary tools to do so. We just need a flash drive larger than 8GB, the internet.
At present we always recommend installing Windows with drives in GPT format, although SATA and M.2 SSDs are already preconfigured with this partition system. What's more, we can add a second or third Windows to our PC on a new hard drive or partition. We just have to make sure that it appears during startup to use it.
The management of users of the system is also part of our basic tasks. It is not only about creating an account and nothing else, we suggest you know how to manage user credentials and how to manage parental control of the system with your email account.
Network and internet in Windows
Although it is a swampy ground for many, controlling all the topics related to networks in Windows will help us a lot when it comes to browsing safely and quickly. And don't worry, because changing the IP address, activating Bluetooth, or using SSH and Telnet is not complicated if you know how to do it right.
We can also share resources over the network, for example, files, printers or even the computer screen with Miracast.
Customizing our work environment is important to feel comfortable with the system and better spend all those hours that we are going to be in front of it. Here we give you a customization guide with the options of the system itself and other interesting applications, which beware, they are not harmful to the system.
Do you really know how to navigate Windows?
If you think that you can only move around Windows with a mouse by clicking, you are far from knowing what the real power of the system is.
Maintenance, Safe Mode, and Configuration Tasks
Like anything else, an operating system also needs some maintenance, and we must carry it out so that everything works perfectly. In this way, you will avoid formatting and possible problems 100%.
Delving into the system
In addition to the basic tasks seen above, we can still go further, something that all the curious can do with the tutorials that we have been preparing during this time. We discussed feature installation, bug fixes, performance improvements, storage management, and more.
Most common errors in Windows 10
Like all operating systems, Windows is not without bugs or problems that can crop up at any time. Have you ever come across any of these?
Create partitions, format and recover files
We can do all this from the operating system itself, either with the graphical interface or with the command console, thanks to a program as powerful as Diskpart. We can do all this with both hard drives and flash storage drives. Sometimes the drive usually gives errors when it is formatted, but we also have the solution for this.
Advanced internal programs or processes that we must know
You already know that Windows is a huge ecosystem of programs that work on the Windows NT kernel. In it, there are many internal applications that work in the background on the computer to manage our hardware. Many of these will be accessible through commands with the run tool (Windows + R) or directly from the Command Prompt.
How about Windows 10?
For us it is the definitive Microsoft system, it must be recognized that its stability, functions, and applications have improved a lot from previous versions. The new update policy is working well except at the moment of updating itself, which is not usually without errors.
For now, the support that Microsoft offers for Windows has a limit in 2025, at least that is the information it currently provides.